Domestic Violence in Married Women of Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Pakistan; A Mixed Method Study
Keywords:Abuse, Domestic violence, Socio-demographic factors
Objective: To estimate the frequency of domestic violence among women of Rawalpindi/Islamabad, its associated sociodemographic risk factors, and explore its reasons.
Study Design: Mixed Method study.
Place and Duration of Study: Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Pakistan from Feb to Jul, 2021.
Methodology: Two hundred and eight married women of Rawalpindi/Islamabad were selected. Data was collected through a pre-tested structured questionnaire. A focal group discussion was carried out in a group of 10 women to explore the reasons for domestic violence, and themes were created.
Result: The mean age of the participants was 33.6±8.63 years. The frequency of verbal, physical and emotional abuse was 102(49%), 108(51.9%) and 152(73.1%), respectively. The most commonly reported verbal abuse was abusive language. Physical abuse was slapping and emotional abuse was taking decisions without the wife’s consent. There was a strong association between verbal and physical abuse with family income and women's and husbands’ education. Significant reasons for abuse were the husband not earning, unfulfilled wish for a male child, interference from in-laws and drug addiction.
Conclusion: Verbal, physical and emotional abuse were high. Women or husband education and family were significant determinants of all forms of abuse. In contrast, jobless husbands, drug addicts, interfering in-laws and unfulfilled wishes for the male children were the perceived reasons for abuse.